Alumni engagement scoring has an undeniable appeal. What could be simpler? Just add up how many events an alum has attended, add more points for volunteering, add more points for supporting the Annual Fund, and maybe some points for other factors that seem related to engagement, and there you have your score. If you want to get more sophisticated, you can try weighting each score input, but generally engagement scoring doesn’t involve any advanced statistics and is easily grasped.
Not so with predictive modelling, which does involve advanced stats and isn’t nearly as intuitive; often it’s not possible to really say how an input variable is related to the outcome. It’s tempting, too, to think of an engagement score as being a predictor of giving and therefore a good replacement for modelling. Actually, it should be predictive — if it isn’t, your score is not measuring the right things — but an engagement score is not the same thing as a predictive model score. They are different tools for different jobs.
Not only are engagement scoring schemes different from predictive models, their simplicity is deceptive. Engagement scoring is incomplete without some plan for acting on observed trends with targeted programming. This implies the ability to establish causal drivers of engagement, which is a tricky thing.
That’s a sequence of events — not a one-time thing. In fact, engagement scoring is like checking the temperature at regular intervals over a long period of time, looking for up and down trends not just for the group as a whole but via comparisons of important subgroups defined by age, sex, class year, college, degree program, geography or other divisions. This requires discipline: taking measurements in exactly the same way every year (or quarter, or what-have-you). If the score is fed by a survey component, you must survey constantly and consistently.
Predictive models and engagement scores have some surface similarities. They share variables in common, the output of both is a numerical score applied to every individual, and both require database work and math in order to calculate them. Beyond that, however, they are built in different ways and for different purposes. To summarize:
- Predictive models are collections of potentially dozens of database variables weighted according to strength of correlation with a well-defined behaviour one is trying to predict (eg. making a gift), in order to rank individuals by likelihood to engage in that behaviour. Both Alumni Relations and Development can benefit from the use of predictive models.
- Engagement scores are collections of a very few selectively-chosen database variables, either not weighted or weighted according to common sense and intuition, in order to roughly quantify the quality of “engagement”, however one wishes to define that term, for each individual. The purpose is to allow comparison of groups (faculties, age bands, geographical regions, etc.) with each other. Comparisons may be made at one point in time, but it is more useful to compare relative changes over time. The main user of scores is Alumni Relations, in order to identify segments requiring targeted programming, for example, and to assess the impact of programming on targeted segments over time.
Let’s explore key differences in more depth:
The purpose of modelling is prediction, for ranking or segmentation. The purpose of engagement scoring is comparison.
Predictive modelling scores are not usually included in reports. Used immediately in decision making, they may never be seen by more than one or two people. Engagement scores are included in reports and dashboards, and influence decision-making over a long span of time.
The target variable of a predictive model is quantifiable (eg. giving, measurable in dollars). In engagement scoring, there is no target variable, only an output – a construct called “engagement”, which itself is not directly measurable.
Potential input variables for predictive models are numerous (100+) and vary from model to model. Input variables for engagement scores are limited to a handful of easily measured attributes (giving, event attendance, volunteering) which must remain consistent over time.
Variables for predictive models are chosen primarily using statistical methods (correlation) and only secondarily using judgment and “common sense.” For example, if the presence of a business phone number is highly correlated with being a donor, it may be included in the model. For engagement scores, variables are chosen by consensus of stakeholders, primarily according to subjective standards. For example, event attendance and giving would probably be deemed by the committee to indicate engagement, and would therefore be included in the score. Advanced statistics rarely come into play. (For more thoughts on this, read How you measure alumni engagement is up to you.)
In predictive models, giving and variables related to the activity of giving are usually excluded as variables (if ‘giving’ is what we are trying to predict). Using any aspect of the target variable as an input is bad practice in predictive modelling and is carefully avoided. You wouldn’t, for example, use attendance at a donor recognition event to predict likelihood to give. In engagement scoring, though, giving history is usually a key input, as it is common sense to believe that being a donor is an indication of engagement. (It might be excluded or reported separately if the aim is to demonstrate the causal link between engagement indicators and giving.)
Modelling variables are weighted using multiple linear regression or other statistical method which calculates the relative influence of each variable while simultaneously controlling for the influence of all other variables in the model. Engagement score variables are usually weighted according to gut feel. For example, coming to campus for Homecoming seems to carry more weight than showing up for a pub night in one’s own city, therefore we give it more weight.
The quality of a predictive model is testable, first against a validation data set, and later against actual results. But there is no right or wrong way to estimate engagement, therefore the quality of scores cannot be evaluated conclusively.
The variables in a predictive model have complex relationships with each other that are difficult or impossible to explain except very generally. Usually there is no reason to explain a model in detail. The components in an engagement score, on the other hand, have plausible (although not verifiable) connections to engagement. For example, volunteering is indicative of engagement, while Name Prefix is irrelevant.
Predictive models are built for a single, time-limited purpose and then thrown away. They evolve iteratively and are ever-changing. On the other hand, once established, the method for calculating an engagement score must not change if comparisons are to be made over time. Consistency is key.
Which is all to say: alumni engagement scoring is not predictive modelling. (And neither is RFM analysis.) Only predictive modelling is predictive modelling.